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Nobel Prizes in Chemistry

Date Nobel Prize Investigator(s) Chemical Research for the Nobel Prize
2004 Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Irwin Rose Discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
2003 Peter Agre, Roderick MacKinnon Ddiscovery of water channels and structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels
2002 John B. Fenn, Koichi Tanaka, Kurt Wthrich Development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules
2001 William S. Knowles & Ryoji Noyori, K. Barry Sharpless Work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions and work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions and
2000 Alan Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa Discovery and development of conductive polymers
1999 Ahmed Zewail Studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy
1998 Walter Kohn, John Pople Development of the density-functional theory and development of computational methods in quantum chemistry
1997 Jens C. Skou, Paul D. Boyer, John E. Walker Discovery of sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase and explanation of the enzymatic conversion of adenosine triphosphate and
1996 Robert F. Curl Jr., Sir Harold Kroto, Richard E. Smalley Discovery of new carbon compounds called fullerenes
1995 Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina, F. Sherwood Rowland Explanation of processes that deplete Earth's ozone layer
1994 George A. Olah Development of techniques to study hydrocarbon molecules
1993 Kary B. Mullis, Michael Smith Inventors of techniques for gene study and manipulation
1992 Rudolph A. Marcus Explanation of how electrons transfer between molecules
1991 Richard R. Ernst Improvements in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
1990 Elias James Corey Development of retrosynthetic analysis for synthesis of complex molecules
1989 Sidney Altman, Thomas R. Cech Discovery of certain basic properties of RNA
1988 Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, Hartmut Michel Discovery of structure of proteins needed in photosynthesis
1987 Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn & Charles J. Pedersen Development of molecules that can link with other molecules and development of molecules that can link with other molecules
1986 Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee, John C. Polanyi Development of methods for analyzing basic chemical reactions
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman, Jerome Karle Development of a way to map the chemical structures of small molecules
1984 Bruce Merrifield Development of a method of polypeptide synthesis
1983 Henry Taube Study of electron transfer reactions
1982 Aaron Klug Determination of structure of biological substances
1981 Kenichi Fukui, Roald Hoffmann Orbital symmetry interpretation of chemical reactions
1980 Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert & Frederick Sanger First preparation of a hybrid DNA and development of chemical and biological analyses of DNA structure
1979 Herbert C. Brown, Georg Wittig Introduction of compounds of boron and phosphorus in the synthesis of organic substances
1978 Peter Mitchell Formulation of a theory of energy transfer processes in biological systems
1977 Ilya Prigogine Widening the scope of thermodynamics
1976 William Lipscomb Structure of boranes
1975 John Cornforth, Vladimir Prelog Work in stereochemistry
1974 Paul J. Flory Studies of long-chain molecules
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer, Geoffrey Wilkinson Organometallic chemistry
1972 Christian Anfinsen, Stanford Moore, William H. Stein Fundamental contributions to enzyme chemistry
1971 Gerhard Herzberg Research in the structure of molecules
1970 Luis Leloir Discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates
1969 Derek Barton, Odd Hassel Work in determining conformation and actual three-dimensional shape of molecules
1968 Lars Onsager Work on theory of thermodynamics of irreversible processes
1967 Manfred Eigen, Ronald G.W. Norrish, George Porter Studies of extremely fast chemical reactions
1966 Robert S. Mulliken Work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules
1965 Robert B. Woodward Synthesis of sterols, chlorophyll, and other substances
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin Determining the structure of biochemical compounds essential in combating pernicious anemia
1963 Karl Ziegler, Giulio Natta Structure and synthesis of polymers in the field of plastics
1962 John Cowdery Kendrew, Max Ferdinand Perutz Determination of the structure of hemoproteins
1961 Melvin Calvin Study of chemical steps that take place during photosynthesis
1960 Willard F. Libby Development of radiocarbon dating
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovsky Discovery and development of polarography
1958 Frederick Sanger Determination of the structure of the insulin molecule
1957 Lord Todd Work on nucleotides and nucleotide coenzymes
1956 Sir Cyril Hinshelwood, Nikolay Semenov Work on the kinetics of chemical reactions
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud First synthesis of a polypeptide hormone
1954 Linus Pauling Study of the nature of the chemical bond
1953 Hermann Staudinger Work on macromolecules
1952 Archer J.P. Martin, Richard L.M. Synge Development of partition chromatography
1951 Edwin M. McMillan, Glenn T. Seaborg Discovery of and research on transuranium elements
1950 Otto Diels, Kurt Alder Discovery and development of diene synthesis
1949 William F. Giauque Behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures
1948 Arne Tiselius Researches in electrophoresis and adsorption analysis; serum proteins
1947 Sir Robert Robinson Investigation of alkaloids and other plant products
1946 James B. Sumner, John H. Northrop & Wendell M. Stanley Discovery of enzyme crystallization and preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in pure form
1945 Artturi Virtanen Invention of fodder preservation method
1944 Otto Hahn Discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei
1943 George de Hevesy Use of isotopes as tracers in chemical research
1942 Not Awarded  
1941 Not Awarded  
1940 Not Awarded  
1939 Adolf Butenandt (Declined), Leopold Ruzicka Work on sexual hormones and work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes
1938 Richard Kuhn (Declined) Carotenoid and vitamin research
1937 Norman Haworth, Paul Karrer Research on carbohydrates and vitamin C and research on carotenoids, flavins, and vitamins
1936 Peter Debye Work on dipole moments and diffraction of X rays and electrons in gases
1935 Frdric Joliot, Irne Joliot-Curie Synthesis of new radioactive elements
1934 Harold C. Urey Discovery of heavy hydrogen
1933 Not Awarded  
1932 Irving Langmuir Discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry
1931 Carl Bosch, Friedrich Bergius Invention and development of chemical high-pressure methods
1930 Hans Fischer Studies and synthesis of hemin, chlorophyll research
1929 Arthur Harden, Hans von Euler-Chelpin Investigations in the fermentation of sugars and the enzyme action involved
1928 Adolf Windaus Constitution of sterols and their connection with vitamins
1927 Heinrich Wieland Researches into the constitution of bile acids
1926 The Svedberg Work on disperse systems
1925 Richard Zsigmondy Elucidation of the heterogeneous nature of colloidal solutions
1924 Not Awarded  
1923 Fritz Pregl Method of microanalysis of organic substances
1922 Francis W. Aston Work with mass spectrograph; whole-number rule
1921 Frederick Soddy Chemistry of radioactive substances; occurrence and nature of isotopes
1920 Walther Nernst Work in thermochemistry
1919 Not Awarded  
1918 Fritz Haber Synthesis of ammonia
1917 Not Awarded  
1916 Not Awarded  
1915 Richard Willsttter Pioneer researches in plant pigments, especially chlorophyll
1914 Theodore W. Richards Accurate determination of the atomic weights of numerous elements
1913 Alfred Werner Work on the linkage of atoms in molecules
1912 Victor Grignard, Paul Sabatier Discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry and method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years
1911 Marie Curie Discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element
1910 Otto Wallach Pioneering work in the field of alicyclic compounds
1909 Wilhelm Ostwald Work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction
1908 Ernest Rutherford Investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances
1907 Eduard Buchner Biochemical researches and his discovery of cellfree fermentation
1906 Henri Moissan Investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him
1905 Adolf von Baeyer The advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds
1904 Sir William Ramsay The discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system
1903 Svante Arrhenius Advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation
1902 Emil Fischer Work on sugar and purine syntheses
1901 Jacobus H. van 't Hoff Discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions
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Updated on: April 15, 2010 8:26 PM