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Chapter 5: Intercalation into High-Temperature Superconductors

The bismuth-based superconductors with composition of Bi2Sr2Can-1CunO2n+4 are unique to the class of cuprate materials in that they possess a large van der Waals gap between adjacent bismuth-oxide layers. This van der Waals gap is a result of 6s2 lone pairs on bismuth1 that are directed toward the gap. The gap size is about 3.2 . Numerous research studies have utilized this gap for the insertion of a variety of materials such as iodine,2-55 AgI,56-60 HgI2,61-64 lithium,65-71 metal phthalocyanines,72-83 and other organic materials.84-91

The electrical properties of conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, can be modified by oxidative doping of the neutral, insulating polymer to a conductive state and undoped by a reductive process.92-95 Recently, polymer intercalation has been accomplished96-98 using a variety of nonsuperconducting host lattices such as zeolites,99-103 FeOCl,104-107 silicates,108-110 and other materials.111 The conductive properties of many of these systems have been dramatically modified by the inclusion of the conducting polymer in an insulating material.

The creation of a hybrid system involving a high-temperature superconductor and a conducting polymer could be tailored, which involves “tuning” the electrical properties of the system. In order to construct this hybrid system, the controlled insertion of the conducting polymer must first be demonstrated. Here, it is demonstrated that insertion of polypyrrole between the adjacent Bi-O layers in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x can be achieved

In this chapter, methods for intimate assembly of a conductive polymer into the high-temperature superconductor lattice of a bismuth based cuprate system are described. Here, polypyrrole is intercalated into I-Bi2Sr2Can-1CunO2n+4. First, in sections 5.1 - 5.4, a summary of prior relevant intercalation studies of the Bi2Sr2Can-1CunO2n+4 system is provided along with background on intercalation of other polymers into layered structures. Second, in sections 5.5 - 5.6, the new research on polypyrrole incalated into the Bi2Sr2Can-1CunO2n+4 system is presented.

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Updated on: April 15, 2010 8:26 PM